Editors-in-chief: Marlena Kurowska, Józef Porayski-Pomsta, Maria Przybysz-Piwko
|From the Editors|
|ARTICLES AND DISSERTATIONS|
|Danuta Emiluta-Rozya||Programming of Therapy on the Basis of Research in Speech-Language Pathology
Summary: In this article the author presents a scheme of speech-language therapy which is based on the results of a diversified (the outcome depends on the scope of pathologies or impediments in the child’s speech development) diagnostic procedure. Each therapy program should include a goal which would be strictly related to the elimination of speech-language disorders (which varies according to specific cases) and its content is comprised of exercises, whose selection depends on specific needs, created to enhance the development of a child’s speech, language or pronunciation and the elimination of pathomechanisms. The important element of the therapy is (in justified cases) parental pedagogy. The assumptions of the therapy are illustrated with examples of case studies.
Keywords: programs of speech-language pathology therapies, results of speech-language pathology research, goals of speech-language pathology therapy, exercises developing language competence, elimination of pathomechanisms of speech or articulation disorders
|Danuta Pluta-Wojciechowska||Speech Therapy Procedure in Cognitive Analysis
Summary: This paper analyzes the relation between the assessment, diagnosis and therapy in the case of peripheral dyslalia. Three models of speech therapy are distinguished on the basis of the diagnosis. The following research questions are asked: Are three stages of the therapy of peripheral dyslalia (i.e. preparing the speech organs to learn the sound, elicit the sound, automate the sound) sufficient in the modern therapy models? Is it reasonable to maintain this method of the facilitation of phoneme production in the face of current research on dyslalia, studies involving bioengineering, and the achievements of modern medicine? By means of analyzing the three stages of the facilitation of phoneme produc- tion, the blind spots of this approach are indicated.
Keywords: dyslalia, assessment of phoneme production, therapy of the disorders of phoneme production, speech disorders
|Natalia Siudzińska, Elżbieta Radkowska||Speech Therapy for Children after Pharyngoplasty Surgery
Summary: The article consists of two parts. The aim of the first part is a description of speech disorders of children with a cleft palate whose main cause is velopharyngeal insufficiency. This part also includes means of treating children with this kind of abnor- mality. The second part of the article is devoted to the speech therapy of children with velopharyngeal insufficiency, with a special focus on patients who have had pharyngo- plasty performed with the use of a lobe which had been removed from the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. In the case of this group of children speech therapy requires a special caution.
Keywords: cleft, hypernasal speech, velopharyngeal insufficiency, pharyngoplasty
|Marlena Kurowska||Speech Elicitation in Children with Developmental Disorders of Speech and Language Caused by Cerebral Cortex Defects
Summary: Natural and spontaneous acquisition of speech and language is impossible in the case of children with damage and/or malfunctions of CNS. Inappropriate development of language brain mechanisms can be observed in such children during the process of speech therapy diagnostics. These mechanisms are, among others, phonemic hearing and/or articulatory kinesthesia. As a result, one may observe certain difficulties in understanding speech, as well as much more profound difficulties in the scope of building utterances. In such cases the most commonly formulated diagnosis is the underdevelopment of speech of cortical origin. The process of improvement in children with this diagnosis takes many years. In this paper I have presented ways of creating communication situations which would allow to enlarge the vocabulary, learn and stabilize correct grammatical forms, build increasingly communicative utterances.
Keywords: process of improvement, communicative situation, enlarging the vocabulary, stabilising grammatical forms
|Milena Mrozowska||The Stuttering Therapy Based on the Passive Air Flow Technique by M.F. Schwartz
Summary: In this article the author presented the theoretical basis and the procedures used in a stuttering therapy which uses the Passive Air Flow Technique by Martin F. Schwartz. Schwartz made an unexpected and accidental discovery during the application of the Sonagraph transducer to the side of the neck while studying a stuttering person’s throat–movement patterns in cleft-palate. Observing the throat laryngospasms of the person with stuttering he concluded that the problem can be solved using the passive air flow produced during a calm exhalation. Stuttering is a learned behaviour. He claimed that reducing the laryngospasms before the act of speaking, and opening the vocal cords are would lead to the reduction in stuttering, which is a learned behavior, in addition to the closure of the vocal cords. Martin F. Schwartz therapy is a complex method based on a quick alternation of intent to respirate using the Passive Air Flow Technique (flutter) and to articulate, which follows, slowing down the first word with a mental pause after saying the first word. Therapy program includes various psychological elements supporting the patient, whose aim is to increase the motivation, and desensitization Elements, e.g., Contract, Toughening, using MotivAider, exercises in real life, overcoming anticipatory stress, the Bathtub Technique. Program consists of intensive therapy in the clinic and the basic training which lasts about a year. Many support systems helped the patients in achieveing speech fluency and mastering the technique.
Keywords: stuttering therapy, the Passive Air Flow Technique, Flutter, desensitization, Contract, Toughening, MotiveAider, the Bathtub Technique, Support Systems
|Dorota Lipiec||Speech Disorders Assessment Card for Patients after the Total Laryngectomy
Summary: The diagnosing of communication difficulties in patients after the total laryn- gectomy should be performed according to the specific order of activities. The speech therapy diagnosis dependent on the way the patient communicates. The purpose of this article is to propose an examination tool: the speech disorders assessment card for patients after the total laryngectomy. This tool was established as a result of the need to sys- tematise the diagnostic procedure in the case of the above referred patients and to facilitate the examination of patients by speech therapists.
Keywords: Speech therapy examination, speech therapy diagnosis, speech disorders assessment card for patients after the total laryngectomy, linguistic communication after the total laryngectomy, total laryngectomy
|Monika Kaźmierczak||Evaluation of Patients with Voice Disorders Assessed by Voice Handicap Index (VHI) Compared to other Methods of Diagnostics (part 1 − Used in Phoniatrics)
Summary: The first part of the article refers to the characteristics of the VHI question- naire, including its construction and implementation in modern diagnosis and therapy of voice disorders. The questionnaire is presented in relation to other diagnostic methods used in phoniatrics. The summary lists the shortcomings of the survey but primarily shows its advantages so that it can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of voice disorders.
Keywords: diagnosis and therapy of voice disorders, Voice Handicap Index (VHI), Scale of Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD), GRBAS Scale
|Monika Kaźmierczak||Evaluation of Patients with Voice Disorders Assessed by Voice Handicap Index (VHI) Compared to other Methods of Diagnostics (part 2 − Used by Voice and Speech Therapists)
Summary: The second part of the article refers to the characteristics of the VHI question- naire, including its construction and implementation in modern diagnosis and therapy of voice disorders, especially taking into account bio-psycho-social model. The question- naire is shown in relation to other diagnostic methods used by voice and speech therapists. The summary indicated the possibility of its use beyond medical practice.
Keywords: diagnosis and treatment of voice disorders, self-evaluation of voice, bio–psycho-social model
|Karolina Pożoga||Implementation of FAST Test in Diagnostics and Monitoring of the Process of Aphasia in the Acute Phase of Stroke (based on the author’s own research)
Summary: The article focuses on selected problems connected with the issue of dia- gnosing and monitoring the course of aphasia in the acute phase of stroke. The work contains partial results and conclusions from a broader research on this subject conducted by the author. The article presents a strategy of choosing diagnostic tools, as well as the course and outcomes of speech therapy conducted with the use of the FAST Test on 20 patients in the acute phase of stroke. The research have been carried out during hospitalization at a Stroke Unit. Conclusions point to the instability of symptoms of aphasia in the acute phase of stroke. The author points to the possibility of appearance of multiple factors, that may have an influence on the observed changeability of symptoms, and which, in an crucial way, may determine the form of the aphasia in the acute phase of stroke. Conclusions drawn from the research point to the necessity of taking into consideration a more complex problem and a wide range of factors in the process of diagnosis and neuro- logical speech therapy of aphasia in the acute stage of stroke. The language difficulties among neurological patients are highly changeable, therefore they should be subject to speech therapy evaluation, which in consequence leads to the necessity of modifying the therapeutic procedures.
Keywords: stroke, aphasia, neurologopedic diagnosis, course of aphasia in acute stage of stroke
|SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY PREVENTION AND THE SUPPORT OF SPEECH FUNCTIONS DEVELOPMENT|
|Alina Gromadka||The Idea of Speech-Language Pathology Prevention and Therapy, and the Indicators of Disorders on the Autism Spectrum
Summary: The article presents possible ways of diagnosis of ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) in infants and children in early childhood and early speech-language pathology prevention as an indispensable element in a therapeutic program. The idea of the early speech-language pathology prevention in the cases of children who are in the ASD risk group is based on predictions of how a child will function in society. The child’s level of communication skills determines the direction of speech-language pathology therapy. It is necessary to focus on the symptoms that are common for many types of disorders and assess if they imply a pathology or not. Individual program of speech-language pathology therapy for children who are in the ASD risk group cannot be based on the traditional procedures of speech-language pathology therapy. This form of therapy would not be effective. The basis for the therapy should be the functionality of speech resulting from essential skills of a child.
Keywords: ontogenesis of speech and language development, early speech-language pathology prevention, language stimulation, early intervention, early ASD symptoms, ASD indicators
|Iwona Sołtys||Influence of the Type of Breastfeeding on the Development of Articulation Patterns. Prevention of Disorders in the Case of the Artificial Breastfeeding − Tasks for Speech-Language Therapist
Summary: The article focuses on the problems in the field of prevention speech therapy. It was shown that each type of feeding (breastfeeding and bottle feeding) strongly affects orofacial growth and development. The paper describes associations between the use of bottles, pacifier and other sucking behaviors and speech disorders in children. Additionally, the role of the speech therapist in the neutralization of the influence of incorrect feeding habits among the new-born children is presented.
Keywords: speech-language pathology prevention, breast feeding, bottle feeding, reflexes of an infant, development of speech
|Marcelina Przeździęk||Breastfeeding Support of a Child with Infantile Cerebral Palsy. Basic Issues
Summary: In the article the author presents and analyzes basic issues connected with the process of breastfeeding of children with infantile cerebral palsy. The author indicates primary factors which impede this process and analyzes techniques that support its correct course. The aim of this article is to attract attention of the readers to, often overlooked aspects of the process of breastfeeding and their role in the therapy of children with ICP.
Keywords: Infantile cerebral palsy, feeding disorders, swallowing disorders, therapy of feeding disorders
|Joanna Zawadka||The Role of Speech-Language Therapy in the Prevention, Diagnosis and Therapy of Reading and Writing Disorders
Summary: The article presents the role of the speech-language pathologist and their work in the context of prevention, diagnosis and therapy of reading and writing disorders with particular emphasis on developmental dyslexia. In recent years one increasingly emphasize the role of speech-language therapist as a specialist who works with psycho- logists and educators. One of the factors that influenced the change of mutual relations was the acknowledgement by many theorists and practitioners of the phonological theory [Snowling 1998] as the explanation of the deficit of the underlying difficulties in reading and writing. What is more, the research on language deficits allowed us to identify areas of difficulty in verbal communication in both speech and writing. As a consequence, diagnostic tools have now language awareness tasks (especially for phonological aware- ness), and in treatment programs we also find this kind of exercises. One could say that the current form of scientific reflection on dyslexia tends to find a common area of actions carried out by a speech-language therapist and specialists in the diagnosis and treatment of specific reading and writing difficulties.
Keywords: reading, writing, speech, developmental dyslexia, speech-language therapy, diagnosis of dyslexia, dyslexia therapy, the risk of dyslexia
|DEVELOPMENT AND PATHOLOGY OF SPEECH|
|Olga Jauer-Niworowska||Difficulties in the Processing of Abstract andMetaphoric Content by Persons with Parkinson Disease (PD) in Intellectual Norm − Research Report
Summary: The article is a research report and focuses on disorders in the processing of language content by persons with Parkinson disease. The author analyses difficulties that emerge in this process by taking into account their symptoms and potential patho- mechanisms. In this research paper the author presents only partial results by focusing on the way in which the test has been constructed. The test is taken by persons with Parkinson disease and the control group, and consists in the actualization of pairs of associated words which contain the names of color pairs. The complete research report will be published as a monography (work in progress).Keywords: Parkinson disease
|Justyna Żulewska, Małgorzata Nowis-Zalewska||Talking Through as a Symptom of Naming Disorder of Persons with Aphasia
Summary: The article presents the results of a research related to the difficulty in produc- tion names for common objects in patients with aphasia. Word-finding difficulty is most strictly related to the damage of central nervous system which causes aphasia. A common strategy used by individuals with word finding difficulties is circumlocution. In the article the authors describe the types of circumlocutions, number of circumlocutions relative to other types of anomia and the types of circumlocutions for particular objects shown in the pictures.
Keywords: stroke, aphasia, anomia
|Elżbieta Trociuk-Sadowska||Reactions of Mute Children with Autism to Their Own Names (based on the author’s own research)
Summary: The aim of this article is to present the ways in which mute children with autism react to the pronunciation of their own names by various persons and in different situations and places. The object of the presented research is to determine the ways in which mute children with autism communicate with their environment (case study) and react to their own names. 4 types of situations have been analyzed (both natural and staged). According to the results of the study, the way in which the initial interview with child’s parents is carried out should be revised.
Keywords: child autism, non-verbal communication, reaction to one’s own name, case study, speech-language pathology therapy interview
|Mariola Białek||The Ability to Diversify and Use Intonation Patterns by Three and Four Year Old Children
Summary: This article focuses on the ability of perceiving and expressing intonation by preschool children. Based on the linguistic material collected during the research, an attempt was made to determine the progress of diversifying and using intonation patterns by three and four year old children in the standard development stage. In order to determine these patterns, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the material has been conducted. The analysis shows that preschool children use intonation in spontaneous speech relatively efficiently, but the diversified intonation in other people’s speech causes difficulties for them. It was observed that, although they are able to use prosodic features, they are yet not fully capable of understanding them. The perception of prosodic aspects of speech is therefore not yet completely formed at this age.
Keywords: prosody, intonation, perception, utterance, a questionnaire survey
|Hubert Olborski||The Impact of Stuttering on the Prosody of Speech. The Assessment of Pronunciation Disorders in Clonic and Tonic Stuttering on the Suprasegmental Level
Summary: The main subject discussed in the present paper is the influence of clonic and tonic stuttering on the speech prosody. The above issue is practically absent in the literature. The researchers mention that suprasegmental disorders do occur in the speeches of stuttering people yet they do not provide any thorough study examining the type and intensity of the occurring anomalies. The study which I carried out allowed me to thoroughly analyze the problem. The objects of my analysis were both linguistic and emotional prosody. Furthermore, I examined the degree of the intensification of speech disfluency in controlled and uncontrolled language processing.
Keywords: linguistic prosody, emotional prosody, clonic stuttering, tonic stuttering
|Ewa Boksa||Salivation and Communication Disorders in Patients Suf- fering from Dysphagia
Summary: In this article I discuss the causes and consequences of salivation as one of the main symptoms of dysphagia that affects the quality and way of communication in people with cerebral palsy and multiple disabilities.
Keywords: salivation, dysphagia, cerebral palsy, communication disorders
|Joanna Chmielewska, Barbara Jamróz: Ewelina Sielska-Badurek, Kazimierz Niemczyk||Texture of Liquids and Food as an Important Aspect of Aspiration Pneumonia Prevention in the Cases of Patients with Dysphagia
Summary: Dysphagia is a disorder that often occurs at ENT departments. The specific nature of ENT ward can increase the risk of acquiring dysphagia. A very important aspect of the perioperative care of the patient with dysphagia is to allow the oral intake while maintaining safety and eliminating the risk of aspiration of food. In the article the authorspresented a proposal International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative − to unifynaming consistency and texture of fluids and foods in the rehabilitation of patients with dysphagia. The authors showed the impact of thickening fluids and restrictions on the adoption of certain textures on the possibility of aspiration of food into the trachea and the related aspiration pneumonia.Keywords: dysphagia, swallowing, swallowing disorders, texture, pneumonia, FEES, videofluoroscopy, VFS, aspiration pneumonia
|ISSUES CONNECTED WITH COMMUNICATION|
|Anna Suchodolska (Hanna Sukhadolskaya)||Communication of Immigrants with Poles. Phenomena of Language Consciousness and Communication Consciousness
Summary: The paper presents the results of sociolinguistic research conducted among immigrants between December 2014 and February 2015 in Warsaw. The objective of the research was to investigate language and communicative awareness of immigrants. The following features have been described on the basis of questionnaire and inter- view analyses: 1) knowledge, 2) communicative competence, 3) emotions, 4) evalua- tions, 5) stereotypes, 6) attitudes, 7) expectations, 8) prognoses. Language awareness (communicative awareness) has been analyzed in the article as a multidimensional pheno- menon. Examples of positive behaviours and negative behaviours (verbal aggression and non-verbal aggression) have been presented. The paper describes possible obstacles to effective communication between immigrants and Polish people.
Keywords: language awareness, communicative awareness, immigrants, foreigners, aggression, verbal aggression, non-verbal aggression, taboos, stereotypes, effective com- munication
|Maria Żaboklicka||Pronunciation of Acting School Candidates. Based on the Material Gathered in Warsaw Theatre Academy during Entrance Exams in 2011
Summary: The main assumption of this research was to examine the pronunciation of acting school candidates and verify the candidates’ awareness of their own pronunciation. This goal has been achieved thanks to the cooperation with the Acting Department of the Aleksander Zelwerowicz National Academy of Dramatic Art in Warsaw whose authorities had allowed in June 2011 the author to conduct the research among candidates taking part in the entrance exams. Methods applied in the research were primarily: inter- view, survey questionnaires and open observation. The evaluation of their stomatognathic system, the analysis of their clearness of speech and the evaluation of awareness of their own pronunciation have been conducted on the basis of the video material and survey questionnaires gathered during the research.The results of the study can be an interesting source of knowledge on the preparation of candidates who aspire to become actors.
Keywords: pronunciation, clearness of speech, awareness, candidate, acting school
|Alicja Karsznia-Sobczak||VB-MAPP. The Evaluation of Milestones and Therapy Planning. The Description of Polish Edition of Program Designed to Evaluate Language and Social Skills of Children with Autism and other Developmental Disorders|
|CHRONICLE OF THE INSTITUTE OF APPLIED POLISH STUDIES (2015)Habilitation theses of the faculty members of the Institute of Applied PolishDoctoral dissertations defended in the Institute of Applied Polish StudiesJubileesAssociate Professor Dr. Maria Przybysz-Piwko (8 December 1950 − 16 October 2016)|
|BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PUBLICATIONS BY FACULTY OF THE INSTITUTE OF APPLIED POLISH STUDIES (2015)|