Editors-in-chief: Józef Porayski-Pomsta
|FROM THE EDITORS|
|Józef Porayski-Pomsta||A Decade of “Studies in Pragmalinguistics”. Annals of the Institute of Applied Polish Studies, the Faculty of Polish Studies, the University of Warsaw|
|ABOUT MARIA PRZYBYSZ-PIWKO|
|Danuta Emiluta-Rozya, Bożena Strachalska||Maria Przybysz-Piwko as a Person, Linguist, Social Activist|
|Ewa Wolańska||Maria Przybysz-Piwko as a Co-Creator of the Modern Speech Therapy at the University of Warsaw|
|Ewa Wolańska||Bibliography of Maria Przybysz-Piwko’s Output in the Period 1975–2017|
|ARTICLES AND DISSERTATIONS|
|Józef Porayski-Pomsta, Danuta Emiluta-Rozya||Warsaw Speech Therapy. Past and Present Times
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the history of the Warsaw speech therapy since the early 19th c. It is limited, in particular as regards the period of the last quarter of the 20th c. and the initial fifteen years of the 21st c., to two higher education institutions: the University of Warsaw and the Maria Grzegorzewska University. The authors of the study justify this limitation with the fact that these two institutions that had a substantial influence on the development of the contemporary speech therapy in Poland in the past and have still exerted a major impact on its present development. The authors introduce the persons who built the foundations of the Polish speech therapy: Rev. Dr Jakub Falkowski, Jan Siestrzyński, Dr Władysław Ołtuszewski, Prof. Maria Grzegorzewska, Prof. Jan Baudouina de Courtenay, Prof. Tytus Benni, Prof. Halina Koneczna, Prof. Stanisław Skorupka, Prof. Halina Mierzejewska, Dr Irena Styczek and other contributors to the creation of the discipline of science they found interesting and practical activity. They emphasise the value of cooperation between scholars from the University of Warsaw and the Maria Grzegorzewska University (earlier: National Special Education Institute, Maria Grzegorzewska Higher School of Special Education). They also present the development of speech therapy programmes at both Universities and the academic output in the area of speech therapy.
KEYWORDS: speech therapy, history of the Warsaw speech therapy, speech therapist education at the University of Warsaw, speech therapist education at the Maria Grzegorzewska University, research on speech and language
|I. Research on speech disorders in people with nervous system dysfunctions|
|Olga Jauer-Niworowska||Participation of Subcortical Structures in Regulating Communication and Language Behaviours. Findings from Examinations of People with Parkinson’s Disease
ABSTRACT: In this article the author describes the results of interdisciplinary research of patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD) with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI). The author makes the characteristic of speech-language disorders in this patients. The author also emphasizes the usefulness of qualitative and quantitative analysis of speech -language functions. She shows that the determinants of speech-language impairments in this group is multifunctional and multilevel. She The author accentuates also the interpenetration of psyche and soma dimensions, and shows that in the process of speech-language diagnosis of the patients we should consider psychologic and somatic determinants of the speech-language disorders in the process of diagnosis and in the speech – language therapy. The author recognizes also the functions of basal ganglia and frontal lobes loops in regulation of speech and communication behavior.
KEYWORDS: Speech-language therapy, psychology, Parkinson’s Disease, emotional disorders, mild cognitive impairments, motor disorders, language and communication disorders
|Justyna Sochacka||A Case Study of a Patient Suffering from Multiple System Atrophy (The Cerebellar Form)
ABSTRACT: This article presents a case study of a patient suffering from multiple system atrophy. Multiple system atrophy is a chronic, non-stationary and degenerative disease of the nervous system. The aim of this study was to observe and characterise some symptoms of this disease, which include cerebellar ataxia and Parkinsonism. However, the most important issue was to characterise the linguistic functioning of the patient. It revealed the presence of respiratory, phonatory and articulatory disorders, which are relevant to dysarthria. Based on some defi nitions of dysarthria, the stage of the disease and the advanced age of patient, the goal of the speech therapy was determined: to be able to communicate relatively effortlessly with the environment for as long as possible. The speech therapy included respiratory, phonatory, articulatory and prosody exercises. The course, the intensity and the effectiveness of the speech therapy are described in this article.
KEYWORDS: dysarthria, Parkinsonism, case study, speech therapy, multiple system atrophy, cerebellar syndrome
|Alicja Karsznia-Sobczak||Speech Dysfl uency in Depression. A Case Study
The article presents the case of a patient with both depression and speech fluency disorder. Despite speech dysfluency is not considered as one of the symptoms of a depressive disorder, in this case study dysfluency seems to be strongly connected with depression. Described indications of dysfluency resemble stuttering but different type from already defined kinds. This case shows the positive results of speech therapy, speech fluency and mental state of the patient have been improved. The presented analyses indicates a need for taking further research on the occurrence of speech fluency disorders in the depression.
KEYWORDS: depression, stammering, speech dysfl uency, depressive disorders, fl uency disorders
|Joanna Chmielewska-Walczak, Barbara Jamróz, Magdalena Milewska, Ewelina Sielska-Badurek, Ewa Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Kazimierz Niemczyk||Oropharyngeal Dysphagia Diagnostics – a Case Study
ABSTRACT: This article presents a case study of a patient with oropharyngeal dysphagia caused by spine degeneration in the C3–C4 cervical segment. The patient came to the Department of Otolaryngology at the Medical University of Warsaw in September 2016 with swallowing disorders of unknown etiology growing for 10 years. After exclusion of neurological and gastrological dysphagia, the patient was qualifi ed for clinical swallowing exam, fi beroptic endoscopic examination of swallowing (FEES) and video fl uoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). The article presents the procedure used for this patient.
KEYWORDS: VFSS, FEES, deglutology, aspiration pneumonia, dysphagia,mbs, Modifi ed Barium Swallow, Swallowing, Swallowing disorders
|Małgorzata Rutkiewicz-Hanczewska||A New Type of Primary Progressive Aphasia
ABSTRACT: The paper deals with the characteristic of new primary progressive aphasia (PPA) variants: mixed, anomic and dynamic, that weren’t published in 2011 year in International Consensus Criteria (ICC). On the ground of the aphasiological literature the Author presents sample criteria for diagnosis and classifi cation of new PPA subtypes and features distinguish these from the logopenic, agrammatic and semantic variants. Presentation of the model of route diagnosis for all above-mentioned PPA variants is the aim of this paper. The model refers to the diagnosis algorithm by M.-M. Mesulam et al. from 2012 year and by R. Vandenberghe from 2016 years.
KEYWORDS: primary progressive aphasia, dynamic, logopenic, agrammatic, semantic, anomic variants, dynamic aphasia
|Justyna Żulewska, Karolina Pożoga||Speech Therapy Procedure in Global Aphasia
ABSTRACT: Patients aphasia clinical pictures consist of various degrees of language creation and reception. In the case of global aphasia, speech generation and reception may be of global character. The study regards speech therapy problems of patients with global aphasia. This article offers a description of speech therapy rules and works on an essential skill – like speaking, understanding, reading, or writing.
KEYWORDS: global aphasia, speech therapy
|Paula Grzeszczuk||Effectiveness of a Group Aphasia Therapy Based on Discourse Formation Principles
ABSTRACT: People suffering from aphasia often withdraw from the family, social and professional life due to communication problems. One of many forms of aid in improving language skills of people with aphasia is a group aphasia therapy based on discourse formation principles. In the discourse-based therapy, the essence is the communication dimension of the created utterances and a group facilitates the development of skills needed in everyday life and shows that, despite difficulties in formulating utterances, valuable communication is possible. This paper introduces the general assumptions of running a group aphasia therapy based on discourse formation principles.
KEYWORDS: aphasia, aphasia therapy, group aphasia therapy, discourse in aphasia
|Marlena Kurowska||Interpretation of the Results of a Test for Articulatory Kinesthesia
ABSTRACT: The principal issue touched upon in the study is the evaluation of the results of a test for articulatory kinesthesia in order to specify the diagnosis of speech and language development disorders in children. It is assumed in the speech therapy practice that the test permits the confirmation or exclusion of the brain pathomechanism of such disorders.
KEYWORDS: diagnosis in speech therapy, articulatory kinesthesia, qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, interpretation of results
|Renata Marciniak-Firadza||A Child with Intellectual Disability, a Child with Borderline Intellectual Disability, and a Child at the Average Intellectual Level Versus Their Word Formation Competences (On an Example of Tool Names). A Comparative Study of Three Cases
ABSTRACT: Word formation plays an important role in the lingustic and cognitive development of children because the ability to interpret derivational patterns and active use of the rules of creating derivatives are the most important display of linguistic competence at lexical level. There are no studies on word formative competence of children with intellectual disability in Polish scientific literature. The aim of my article is to present linguistic interpretation of selected names of tools from the vocabulary of three 7 years old children. I will pay attention mainly to the existence of word formative structures in the linguistic awareness of children with intellectual disability and children with borderline intellectual disability in comparison to those at the average intellectual level. I will also examine the question whether the newly created words are formed according to word formative patterns of Polish language.
KEYWORDS: intellectual disability, word formation, tool names, word formation skills
|Marzena Błasiak-Tytuła||A Therapy of a Bilingual Child with Autism
ABSTRACT: The incidence of autism spectrum disorders increases signifi cantly among children raised in both monolingualism and bilingualism. Many parents, as well as specialists working with bilingual children with autism, may have concerns about the impact of bilingualism on the development of the child’s speech with ASD. This article presents a literature review comparing the development of monolingual and bilingual children with ASD. The author discusses the implications for speech therapy and describes the annual therapy of a child with autism raised in bilingualism.
KEYWORDS: bilingualism, bilingual child with developmental disorder therapy, THE KRAKOW METHOD, Simultaneous-Sequential Learning to Read®, spoken and written language programming, articulation gestures
|II. Narrating, reading and writing skills – disorders and teaching strategies|
|Maria Kielar-Turska||Children’s Narrative Competence: Understanding the Essence of Narrative and Narrating Skills
ABSTRACT: In the psychological studies of narrative a clear direction of the research can be found: from the analysis of syntactic structures, through macro- and microstructure of narration to the research on the psychological conditioning of the reception and production of narration, which is related to the cognitive approach. In the presented studies, we refer to this direction of research and focus on the relations between the level of the cognitive representation (hidden and explicit one) and the narrative competence. The study involved a group of 103 children at the age of 3, 5 and 7. The cognitive representation has been tested by children’s drawings (implicit level) and their recognition of the narration among other forms of expression and conversation about the narration (explicit level). An uninhibited story produced be a child has been understood as the manifestation of the narrative competence. The results have shown significant developmental changes taking place in the cognitive representation both at the implicit and explicit levels. A positive correlation has been also found between the explicit level of representation and communicative competence. Therefore it can be said that the period of middle childhood is the time of very important developmental changes in the knowledge of narration and the skills of creating it.KEYWORDS: narration, narrative competence, cognitive representation
|Ewa Wolańska, Joanna Zawadka, Adam Wolański:||Writing and Reading Without Letters. A Phonological Picture Alphabet by Maria Przybysz-Piwko as an Aid in Developing Phonological Skills of a Child with Diffi culties in Reading and Writing
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the concept and examples of applying a speech therapy tool called a phonological picture alphabet. It was developed by Doc. Dr Maria Przybysz Piwko, a linguist and speech therapist, an academic at the Faculty of Polish Studies, University of Warsaw, for many years. The author of this tool spent a dozen or so years testing and improving it. The works have not been completed as they were interrupted by the author’s premature death in 2016. The tool has not been fully described either. Based on M. Przybysz-Piwko’s papers and chapters in monographs as well as multimedia presentations and notes, where she demonstrated the PPA partially, we reconstruct the tool and its description. A particular emphasis is put on the principles of selecting the language material for practicing, which have not been directly formulated and yet are extremely important to those who want to use the tool. Finally, we present suggestions of exercises for children with a phonological deficit and children without such deficit based on the publications and other material left by the author.KEYWORDS: phonological picture alphabet, phonological and phonemic awareness, learning to read and write, children with reading and writing difficulties
|Ewa Jeżewska-Krasnodębska||Coexistence of Developmental Dyslexia and Speech Disorders in Adolescents Graduating from a Primary School – Scale of the Phenomenon
ABSTRACT: The article presents further fragments of the study carried out within the following research project: The problem of dyslexia among young people and adults. It includes brief introduction to the analyzed issues and both quantitative and qualitative research findings on coexistence of developmental dyslexia and speech disorders in adolescents graduating from a 6 – grade primary school. Studies show that developmental dyslexia and speech disorders occur in 24% of the surveyed youth. In contrast, 88% of adolescents with dyslexia develop speech disorders mainly manifested in the form of articular dysfunction.KEYWORDS: developmental dyslexia, speech disorders, diagnosis, therapy, development, study, education
|Justyna Mikołajewska||Hand and Eye Lateralisation and Phonological Competences of Pupils in the Second Class of Primary School
ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to show the relationship between the model of hand and eye lateralisation and the phonological competence level of pupils in the second class of primary school. I used the Unknown Language test developed by Marta Bogdanowicz . I analysed the influence of crossed and undefined lateralisation on the pupils’ phonological skills. I also checked the hand and eye dominance as well as the frequency of crossed and undefined lateralisation in children with a lower level of phonological competence. I compared the results of the research to the data available in the relevant literature.KEYWORDS: lateralisation, phonological competence, hemispheric dominance, phonematic hearing
|Mariola Białek||I Don’t Know, I Suppose I Think That… – Metatextual Expressions in the Language of Children and Adults (Based on the Author’s Own Research)
ABSTRACT: The aim of the paperis to introduce the problem of the use of metatextual expressions in the speech of young people from the age of 15 to 16 and adults aged over 50. The defi nitions of essential terms as well as points of view of the researchers who touched upon the mentioned subject in their work are also brought to attention. The main part of the article consists of the thorough analysis of the research data, acquired as a result of the questionnaire survey carried out with to two above mentioned groups of respondents differing in age.[/showhide]
KEYWORDS: metatext, metatextual expressions, utterance, particle, a questionnaire survey
|Ewelina Zając||On the Narrative Effi ciency of Pupils in the First to Third Class of Primary School
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to present the results of the research on the narrative efficiency of pupils of grades I–III in primary school, aged from 6 to 9. A screening test was used for children of school age by S. Grabias, Z. M. Kurkowski and T. Woźniak. On the basis of a fi ve-picture story, 40 students compiled their own anecdote. The analysis of all the stories in terms of lexical-semantic efficiency, narrative structure and its linguistic performance was made. Considerable development of the narrative efficiency has been observed, which is reflected in fewer linguistic errors. With age, the pupils build longer, more developed and lexically richer expressions. An annex to all the children’s stories has also been included.
KEYWORDS: language competence, children’s story, narrative efficiency, students’ statements
|III. A child’s speech development – standards and disorders|
|Halina Zgółkowa||Speech Therapy Aspects of Preschool Children’s Lexis
ABSTRACT: The major object of this sketch is the category of neologisms coined by children at preschool age. It analyses the neologisms used in longer utterances produced by children, which compose a corpus based on which frequency tests have been conducted. From the viewpoint of speech therapy, the pronunciation of absolute neologisms, which are certain lexemes unrecognisable until in a context, seems most interesting. Isolated word usages prevent, in particular, the recognition of semantics of lexical units uttered by a child with phonematic hearing deficits. The main thesis established based on the collected corpus material is the necessity to allow for the linguistic and situational context by speech therapists before making a diagnosis.
KEYWORDS: children’s language, speech therapy, neologism, corpus linguistics
|Ewa Binkuńska||Simplifications of Word-Initial Consonant Clusters. Realisation Tendencies in a Child’s Speech Development
ABSTRACT: The realization of initial consonant clusters by three-, four- and fi ve-years old children represents one of several symptoms in development of their language competences. Speech development standards characteristic for the speech ontogenesis ought to be taken into consideration while interpreting pre-school children speech in terms of pronunciation of both individual consonants as well as consonant clusters. Apart from before mentioned speech development standards, another essential aspect of realization of consonant clusters must be examined with respect to phonological proximity of other elements included in a given consonant complex. The assessment of consonant clusters pronunciation requires also the consideration of the analysis of the whole word or phrase qualitatively – having in mind the possibility of present conformities – as well as quantitatively – paying attention to the number of syllables in a given lexeme or phrase.
KEYWORDS: Consonant clusters, speech ontogenesis, consonant clusters reduction
|Katarzyna Matusiak, Karolina Sindrewicz, Natalia Siudzińska||Speech Screening of Children Aged 2 to 3
ABSTRACT: This paper is dedicated to issued related to speech therapy prevention. It presents the results of the screening carried out in three nurseries in the Praga-Północ district in the period 2014-2016. The aim of the conducted tests was early identification of children with speech development delay or disorder and, in the long run, early diagnosis and therapy of developmental disorders. In the examined group of 251 children, only 20% obtained the result: normal speech development. Others were referred to a speech therapist for consultation, re-examination or holistic psychomotor development screening. The obtained results confirm the necessity to carry out early screening and point to the need of implementation of prevention programmes intended to stimulate speech development in establishments for pre-preschool children.
KEYWORDS: speech therapy screening, early diagnosis, speech therapy prevention, child speech development
|Aleksandra Kmita||Selected Speech Therapy Prevention Activities in Prematurely Born Children at the Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
ABSTRACT: Children born prematurely (before the 37th week of pregnancy) fall into a group at risk of speech development disorders. What has a major infl uence on the development of oral functions and, as a consequence, of speech is the quality of the feeding process and attention to ensuring the appropriate quality of physical and social environments to premature infants. This paper aims to present an analysis of actions in the area of speech therapy prevention in newborns and premature infants. The text is based on a systematic literature review and results of the author’s own research in the area of the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the feeding process. The pro-development significance of various forms of preventive and therapeutic impacts on prematurely born children will be discussed. The analysis will cover in particular such forms of actions as might be related to speech development.
KEYWORDS: premature births, speech therapy prevention, oral feeding
|Justyna Antczak-Kujawin||Diagnosis in Speech Therapy of Children Aged 3–6 with Articulation Disorders – Report on the Research
ABSTRACT: The article presents the results of speech therapy diagnosis of a group of children at the age of 3–6 conducted in 2015–2017 by means of the experimental version of author’s own speech therapy examination „W krainie krasnala Korala” (English translation: In the land of Carol the dwarf). On the basis of this research including the test of expressive speech and narrative skills, phonemes realization, structure and abilities of speech organ, primary functions around the speech organ, audiometry, phoneme perception and articulatory proprioception, the author discussed the reasons of articulation disorders most commonly occurring in 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children and determined their influence on the production of consonants in the examined children at the pre-school age.
KEYWORDS: logopedic diagnosis, diagnostic tool, peripheral dyslalia, articulation disorders, reasons of articulation disorders
|CHRONICLE OF THE INSTITUTE OF APPLIED POLISH STUDIES
A Decade of the Institute of Applied Polish Studies – EWA KOZŁOWSKA
Professor Stanisław Dubisz – on the Fortieth Anniversary of his Academic Work at the University of Warsaw – JÓZEF PORAYSKI-POMSTA
Bibliography of the Publications by the Staff of the Institute of Applied Polish Studies (2017) – prepared by EWA KOZŁOWSKAHabilitation Theses by the staff of the Institute of Applied Polish Studies (2017) – prepared by EWA KOZŁOWSKA
Doctoral Dissertations Defended at the Institute of Applied Polish Studies (2017) – prepared by EWA KOZŁOWSKA